不同施氮量和种植密度对烤烟上部烟叶质量的影响?

发布时间:2019-08-25 来源: 短文摘抄 点击:

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  摘 要:为研究烤烟生产适宜的施氮量和种植密度,在田间对烟苗团棵期后实施减少10%施氮量和减小种植密度等处理。结果表明:适当减少施肥量能有效降低上部烟叶厚度,使烟叶更容易分层落黄,能显著提高烟叶的均价、上等烟比例和中上等烟比例,同时提高上部6片烟叶上等烟叶比例,内在化学成分比例更加协调,叶片结构更加疏松;而降低大田种植密度后,上部烟叶厚度有所增加,虽然提高了上部烟叶质量,但由于单位面积株数减少,导致产值降低,同时烤后烟叶烟碱含量有所升高,钾含量降低,烟叶结构稍密。当地条件下,以16 500株/hm2+减少10%施氮量的处理最佳。
  关键词:烤烟;施肥;密度
  中图分类号:S572 文献标识码:A文章编号:1006-060X(2018)01-0018-03
  Effects of Different Nitrogen Application and Planting Density on the Quality of the Upper Tobacco Leaves of the Flue Cured Tobacco
   XIANG Peng-hua,HUANG Yin-zhang,SHAN Xue-hua,FAN Cai-yin
  Abstract:In order to study the suitable nitrogen application rate and planting density of flue-cured tobacco production, 10% nitrogen treatments and a reduction of planting density were carried out in the field after tobacco seedling resettling stage. The results show that the proper reduction of fertilization can effectively reduce the thickness of the upper tobacco leaves, significantly increase the average price of tobacco leaves and the proportion of upper and middle class cigarettes, while improving the upper 6 tobacco leaves of fine tobacco ratio, the intrinsic chemical composition of a more coordinated ratio, leaf structure became loose; the lower field planting density, thickness of upper leaves increased, while improving the quality of upper leaves, but the number per unit area is reduced, the output value will lead to decreased, while nicotine content in tobacco leaves increased, potassium content decreased, and leaves structure slightly dense. Under local conditions, the treatment of more than 16 500 strains/hm2 to reduce the amount of nitrogen by 10% is the best.
  Key words:flue-cured tobacco; fertilization; density
  施氮和種植密度是影响烟叶产量和质量最重要的因素,上部烟叶占单株烟叶干重的40%左右[1-2]。在烟叶生产实际中,烟农常过量施用氮肥来获得较高的经济效益,然而,这会导致上部烟叶贪青晚熟,影响其成熟与采收[3-4]。研究不同施氮量和种植密度对烤烟上部烟叶质量的影响,以确定烤烟生产适宜施氮量和种植密度,从而提高上部烟叶品质。
  1 材料与方法
  1.1 试验材料
  试验于2015年12月至2016年8月在湖南省衡阳市常宁市三角塘镇石岭村的试验田进行。土壤为水稻土,前茬作物是水稻,基本理化性质为:pH值为6.4,有机质25.23 g/kg,全氮2.31 g/kg,碱解氮165.7
  mg/kg,有效磷12.8 mg/kg,速效钾135 mg/kg,缓效钾135.61 mg/kg,肥力中等。供试品种为云烟87。
  1.2 试验设计
  CK:16 500株/hm2+常规施氮量(150 kg/hm2);
  T1:16 500株/hm2+减少10%常规施氮量(135 kg/hm2);
  T2:13 500株/hm2+常规施氮量(150 kg/hm2);T3:13 500株/hm2 +减少10%常规施氮量(135 kg/hm2)。
  每个处理设置3次重复,每个重复种烟100株,随机区组排列。为保证烟苗的正常生长,控氮措施在烟苗团棵后施行,上部烟叶采收方式为:当倒3片烟叶处于成熟时一次性采收上部6片叶。从烟株顶端自上而下的6片叶,分别标记为倒1~6叶,其中倒1~3片为顶叶,倒4~6片为上二棚叶。
  1.3 测定项目方法
  (1)烤烟生育时期调查和记载。记录移栽期、还苗期、伸根期、团棵期、旺长期、现蕾期、打顶期、成熟期、采收始期与采收完毕期的时间周期。

相关热词搜索:烤烟 烟叶 密度 种植 质量

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