短文改错口诀

发布时间:2017-02-16 来源: 短文摘抄 点击:

短文改错口诀篇一:高考英语短文改错口诀

高考英语短文改错口诀

为了提高做短文改错题的能力,除了要加强基础知识的积累、提高语篇的整体理解能力之外,还应该对其错项设置的基本情况有所了解,以便做到目标明确,有的放矢,从而提高解题的正确率。本文拟从语法和逻辑的角度,用口诀的形式,向同学们介绍高考英语短文改错中最常见的几类错误。

短文改错口诀:

动词形,名词数;

注意形和副;

非谓动词细辨别;

习惯用法要记住;

句子成分多分析;

逻辑错误须关注。

一. 动词形

主要包括两类错误:动词的时态和语态错误,以及主、谓不一致的错误。例如: My favourite sport is football. I was member of our school football team. (is) Now my picture and prize is hanging in the library. (are)

上述两例分别属于时态错误和主、谓不一致错误。找出此类错误的关键是树立牢固的时态概念,注意短文内容发生或存在的时间,保持时间概念的一致性。

二. 名词数

指名词单、复数形式的用法错误。常表现为将名词复数写成单数。例如:

…so that I’ll get good marks in all my subject. (subjects)

三. 区分形和副

及区分形容词和副词在句子中的作用和具体用法。 这也是高考短文改错的常考点。例如:

I’m sure we’ll have a wonderfully time together. (wonderful)

Unfortunate, there are too many people in my family. (Unfortunately)

需要注意的是,形容词多用来做定、表、补语等,而副词只能在句子中作状语,修饰动词、形容词、副词或整个句子。第一例中的wonderful作定语修饰time,第二句的Unfortunately作状语修饰整个句子。

四. 非谓动词细辨别

这是考查最多的错误形式之一。主要有分词和动名词类错误,也包括不定式类错误。例如:

…in my spare time, but now I am interesting in football. (interested)

Play football not only makes us grow up tall and strong but also … (playing) My parents love me… and will do all they can ∧ make sure… (to)

上述二、三例分别是动名词作主语,和不定式作目的状语。一般的,现在分词有主动态和进行时的含义,而过去分词具有被动态和完成时的含义,不定式有将来时态的含义。

五. 习惯用法要记住

主要考查习惯搭配方面的基础知识。这也是历年高考的常考点,其错误表现形式主要有三种:多词、少词和搭配错误。 例如:

It was very kind for them to meet me at the railway station and… (of)

We must keep in mind that we play for the team instead ∧ ourselves. (of)

六. 句子成分多分析

不同的句子成分要用不同的词类;不同的语景要选择不同的词语。这些都有待我们对句子结构和句子成分作细致的分析,才能找出用词不当的错误。例如:

They ∧eager to know everything about China and… (were)

I live in Beijing, where is the capital of China. (which)

第一例漏掉了谓语动词were,这是受寒于习惯的影响而导致的错误;第二例则是词类与它在句子中的成分不相符,where是副词,不能作主语。

七. 逻辑错误须关注

与句子的上、下文不一致,甚至相矛盾,属于逻辑性错误。如称谓上的张冠李戴,人名、地名、时间、方位等方面的错误,常是这类错误的考查对象。例如:

The Smiths did his best to make me feel at home. (their)

First, let me tell you something more about myself. (去掉more)

… no way of setting the matter except by selling the set.Now someone at home reads instead. (everyone)

上述第一例中的主语是Smiths(史密斯夫妇俩),因此后面的his不合逻辑。第二例中的more在这儿表“再”的意思,才开始告诉别人,怎么能说“再告诉你一些事”?第三例讲的是为了解决看电视时的争端,“我们”把电视机卖了;晚上没电视看了,所以与从前一

样,大家又都读书了,所以该用everyone。

除了上述错误类型外,常考的错误形式还有:连词but, and, or和so的用法错误(可以归类为逻辑错误),以及冠词的用法错误等。例如:

She was smiling but nodding at me. (and)

It looks as if my parents treat me as a visitor and a guest. (or)

We may be one family and live under a same roof. (the)

下面是2002年全国高考试题中的短文改错题。这道题较全面地反映了本文的口诀。现在请你试着做一做,然后参阅题后的答案与简析。

Last week my parents and I took a two-day trip to Emei

Mountain in Sichuan. As everyone knows,it’s famous 76. _____

Mountain with all kinds of plants and animals. The weather 77. _____

Was fine. It was about noon we arrived at the foot of 78. _____

the mountain,the three of them were very excited. As we 79. _____

climbed the mountain,we ed monkeys,visiting temples 80. _____

and told stories. On the way up I was busy taking picture 81._____

since the scenery was so beautiful. The time passes quickly. 82. _____

Evening came down. We spent the night in a hotel at the top 83. _____

of the mountain. The food was expensive and the service was 84. _____

good. I was so tired that I fell asleep at the moment my 85. _____

head touched the pillow.

答案与简析:

76. famous前加上a.(名词数)

77. 正确

78. we前面加when,引导一个时间状语从句。(句子成分多分析)

79. them→us (逻辑错误须关注)

80. visiting→visited(非谓动词细辨别)

81. picture→pictures(名词数)

82. passes→passed(动词形)

83. 去掉down(习惯用法要记住)

84. and→but(but,and,or和so)

85. 去掉at(句子成分多分析 / 习惯用法要记住)

改错要想拿高分

语法口诀要记牢

(一) 见到谓语找主语,主谓一致找状语

见到名词想多数,可不可数要记牢

见到平行看结构,形式功能要对称

见到代词找指代,指代通常不合理

带宾语必带to,不带宾语不带 to

短文改错口诀篇二:英语短文改错顺口溜

英语短文改错顺口溜

短文改错很简单,名词动词两主线;

每句话为一单位,错误藏在句子间;

名词可数不可数,形式是复还是单;

动词及物不及物,有无宾语在后边;

何种时态弄清楚,主动被动需判断;

非谓动词何形式,作何成分是关键;

形容副词互扰乱,何种级别是重点;

冠词用冠不用冠,定冠还是不定冠;

代词指代要一致,定宾主表认真选;

从句连词要判断,做不做成分仔细看;

遇到and要判断,到底并列还是选转;

若为并列就不变,若转but来更换;

介词副词按短语,习惯用法按习惯;

前后文章要连贯,审后没错对号添。

短文改错不难做,首先解题要沉着;

先看名词单复数,再看代词是否错;

动词时态是关键,过去现在须分辨;

及物动词后有宾,不及宾前定有介;

副词修饰形副动,名词前面常用形;

连词不能胡乱用,转折承接须分清;

固定搭配很重要,句意也须心中晓。

牢记上述八大条,做起题来快又好。

一看一致二词类,三多四少五搭配,六句七语八非谓,九看逻辑对不对,拼写无误便全对。

1. “一致”,指一致性方面的错误,包括主谓一致、时态一致、代词一致等。如: All he said were right. (谓语动词要与主语的数保持一致,应把were改成was)

2. “词类”,指词法,包括同义词、反义词、易混词;名词的可数与不可数、单复数及所有格;代词的格;定语从句中先行词和关系代词的误用;名词性从句中连接词的误用;比较范围的错误。如:

We should remember what we all learnt our own language when we were children. (what应改为that)

She found a wallet laying on the ground. (laying应改为lying)

3. “多”,指多词,句中多了主语、谓语、冠词、介词、副词等。如:

This river is much more longer than that one. (多了副词more)

From his answer we shall know the something now. (不定代词前不加冠词,故去掉the)

4. “少”,指少词,句中少了主语、谓语、冠词、介词、副词等。如:

Then I began to pay more attention my pronunciation. ( attention 后缺少介词to)

5. “搭配”,指固定搭配。如:

We could learn a second language by the same way. ( 固定搭配应为in the same way)

6.“句”,指句型结构。如:

Long ago there had a war between the two countries. (表“存在”的句型应为there be + 主语,故把had改为was)

7. “语”,指语态。如:

He broke the law and punished. (punished 前加was)

8. “非谓”, 指非谓语动词。如:

Scientists like Newton and Watt were usually interesting in these facts. (interesting 改为 interested)

9. “逻辑”,指文章的逻辑意义,句与句、段与段之间使用的承接词是转折型、递增型还是因果型,以及受空间、时间限定的词语的使用。如:

This is a lie, and his parents did not know. (两句之间是转折型,and改为but)

10. “拼写”,指单词拼写错误。如:

The hurricane destroied the houses along the coast. (destroied 改为destroyed

一、解题思路(三步解题法):

第一步、快速浏览全文,把握文章的主要时态、人称及文章的主旨大意,顺便标记自己一眼就能看出的错误。

第二步、细读文章的每一句话。一般要结合文章的前后句以及出题规律来做题。 第三步、代入已经修改完成的答案通读全文,看其是否通顺。

注意:在修改过程当中,一定要相信自己的第一感觉。即一般来说,第一次填写的答案正确率比较高,没有十足地把握不易轻易改正!

二、出题规律以及破解关键:

高考短文改错出题人一般会在以下八个方面进行出题。掌握出题规律之后做题便会事半功倍!

1.动词:

(1)主要考察能力:时态、主谓是否一致、固定搭配。

(2)出题形式:

①时态混用

ie, Then the trouble started. We can not open the door. So we asked the policeman for help.

讲解:很显然此句子主时态是一般过去式,因此应把can改为could。

②主谓不一致

ie, There were a football game on TV last Saturday evening.

讲解:原句中a football game决定了谓语动词必须用单数,所以应该把were改为was。 ③固定搭配

ie, I have given up somke. The dog doesn’t like the smell.

讲解:give up doing sth。因此动词somke应该改为somking。

2.名词:

(1)主要考察能力:单复数混用。

(2)出题形式:

单复数混用

ie, Helen is seventeen year old. She is very busy.

讲解:“年龄多大了”应该为复数形式,应此应该把year改为years。

注意:代词单复数混用类似。

ie, As for a friendship, we can readily find them in our classmates and other people around us.

讲解:显然因该把them改为it,指代前面提及的friendship。此句话意思是“就友谊来说,我们可以很容易地从我们的同学和周围的人中找到。”

3.形容词/副词

(1)主要考察能力:两者之间是否混用。

(2)出题形式:

形容词与副词混用。即该用形容词的地方原文用了副词,该用副词的地方原文用了形容词。 ①副词代替正确形容词出现在文章当中

ie, During the football season, Helen is much busier than usually.

讲解:很明显“与平时相比较更忙”,因此需要把usually改为usual。

②形容词代替正确副词出现在文章当中

ie, As the time clock showed one minute and forty-two seconds leaft in the game, she began cheering excited, “Come on-get going!”

讲解:原文意思是说比赛还剩一分四十二秒时,她开始兴奋地叫道-----,显然应把excited改为excitedly,用来修饰动词cheer。

4.介词

短文改错口诀

(1)主要考察能力:(特别是与动词的)固定搭配。

(2)出题形式:

①介词省略

ie, I’m surt you will get rid the sorrow and unhappiness caused by the disaster. 讲解:get rid of 是固定搭配,意思为“摆脱,除去”

②介词多余

ie,My wife is also happy because of I have given up smoking.

讲解:这里显然示对because of与because用法的辨别区分。前者不能接句子,而后者充当连词可以接句子。所以应该把of去掉。

③介词用错(一般为固定搭配)

ie, I pick out her false hair and said, “Don’t be sad, Miss.”

讲解:pick out应该为pick up。pick out挑选的意思;pick up捡起的意思。

5.连词

(1)主要考察能力:前后两句话之间的衔接关系。

常考三种关系:

but转折

and并列

because原因

①ie, One day, my wife and I went shopping at a store. We drove the car but we had a lot of things to buy.

讲解:显然原文中所要表达的意思是“我们开车去的原因是因为我们要买好多东西”,所以应该把but改为because/as/for。

②ie,Chatting on line, students can more freely express their feelings and opinions, but improve their English if they are talking with native speakers.

讲解:原文表达的意思是“通过网上聊天,学生能够更加轻松自由地表达自己的想法和观点,并且如果他们同外国人交谈,能够提高他们的英语水平。”所以前后句之间是并列关系,因该把but改为and.

6.句式

(1)主要考察能力:常考that与what或which/how与what之间的转换。

(2)出题形式:

①ie, She never has enough time for that she wants to do.

讲解:原文意思是“她没有足够多的时间来做自己想做的事情”,很明显应该把that改为what。

注意:这一形式是改错常考点。

②ie, We Chinese people have always been concerned about which has happened in your area.

讲解:原文中需要一个连接词承接前后连个句子,这个连接词充当be concerned about引导宾语从句中的主语,所以应该把which改为what。

7. 冠词

(1)主要考察能力:句中冠词是否多余

(2)出题形式:

①冠词多余

ie, I sat in the front of the TV at 7 o’clock, when the game just began.

讲解:区分in front of sth和in the front of sth。解决这个问题记住一句顺口溜就可以了“有the是内无the是外”,即in the front of sth显然是指在事物(sth)内部空间的前面,比如说I prefer to travel in the front of the car.(我愿意坐在汽车的前面);而in front of sth是指事物(sth)外部空间的前面,比如说the car stops in front of the house(汽车停在房前)。因此原文中应该把the去掉。

②冠词遗漏

ie, As we all left home at early age, we met lots of problems in our daily life.

讲解:at an ---- age固定搭配词组,表示“出于---年龄”,比如说at an early/tender age,可以翻译为“很小/年幼的时候”

8.代词

(1)主要考察能力:代词是否多余,以及与反身代词之间的混用。

(2)出题形式:

①代词多余

ie, Don’t lose your heart. With the help of the people all over the world, I’m sure you will get rid of the sorrow and unhappiness.

讲解:lose heart:become discouraged泄气;丧失勇气;而lose one’s heart(to sb/st):fall in love爱上;钟情于。原文意思很明显是“别泄气”。所以应该把your去掉。一字之差,离题千里。

②代词混用

ie, We were living in a big family. We treate each other as brothers and sisters. If any one of them had any difficulty, the other would help him or her out.

讲解: 原文意思是说“我们生活在一个大家庭之中,彼此间相处如同兄弟姐妹。如果我们之中谁有困难,其他人就会帮助他/她解决困难。”所以应把them改为us;把other改为others。 注意:the other表示两者之中“另一个”; the others表示在一个范围内的其他全部。如图所示:

③代词遗漏

ie, A teacher could make classes lively and interesting.

讲解: 应该在classes前加his,表示“使他的课堂生动有趣”。

短文改错口诀篇三:短文改错口诀(终极版)

改错解题口诀

改错错点三字经冠名动 形副逻 介连代

动有形 名有数

形三副四要记住

形副比替换

代词格常变

定语从句难得见 冠何错?介何错? 冠词介词多少错 连词考并从 逻辑考一致 一加一减八处错 形3 ---- 形容词语法功能:可作 ①定语 ②补语 ③表语 形定补表 副4 ---- 副词可修饰:①全句 ②副词 ③形容词 ④动词 全副形动

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